Commuting Pattern Information - For a City Profile

**Analysis Level**

Required for all levels.

**Definition**

If the facility locates in a city

(1) Percentage of new jobs in the city that are filled by people that live in the city

This is the total number of city residents that also work in the city divided by total jobs in the city.

(2) Percentage of new jobs in the city filled by people that commute from the county

This the total number of county residents (outside of the current-profile city) that also work in the city, divided by total jobs in the city.

If the facility locates in a county

(1) Percentage of new jobs in the county filled by people that commute from the city

This is the total number of city residents that commute to jobs somewhere else in the county divided by total jobs in the county which are outside of the current-profile city.

(2) Percentage of new jobs in the county filled by people that live in the county

This the total number of county residents (not in the city) that work in the county divided by total jobs in the county which are outside of the current-profile city.

**How its Used**

These data are used to estimate how new households formed by facility employees are likely to be distributed geographically when the community being analyzed is a city.

**How to Estimate it or Where to Get It**

The input screen has four commuting data points - two data points for projects locating in a city, and two data points for projects locating somewhere else in the county. Any single project will require only two of these data points; which two depends upon where it is located, but filling in both sets is recommended. See Estimating Households in the Help system for detailed calculation steps. A far better approach would be to do a survey of employers in your area to obtain employees’ zip codes, from which you can derive more recent commuting patterns. If zip codes are too large to accurately place employees in a city or outside the county, then you may need street addresses and a GIS program to accurately map the locations and determine the percentages of employees living in each area.

**Descriptive Name**

Commuting Pattern Information - For a County Profile

**Analysis Level**

Required for all levels.

**Definition**

If the facility locates in a city

(1) Percentage of new jobs in the city that are filled by people that live in incorporated areas.

This is the total number of residents in incorporated areas that work in the city divided by total jobs in the city.

(2) Percentage of new jobs in the city filled by people that commute from unincorporated areas.

This the total number of residents in unincorporated areas that work in the city divided by total jobs in the city.

If the facility locates in an unincorporated area of the county

(1) Percentage of new jobs in the county filled by people that commute from incorporated areas.

This is the total number of residents in incorporated areas that commute to the county divided by total jobs in unincorporated areas.

(2) Percentage of new jobs in the county filled by people that live in unincorporated areas

This the total number of residents in unincorporated areas that work in unincorporated areas divided by total jobs in unincorporated areas.

**How its Used**

These are used to estimate how new households formed by facility employees are likely to be distributed geographically when the community being analyzed is a county.

**How to Estimate it or Where to Get It**

The input screen has four commuting data points - two data points for projects locating in a city, and two data points for projects locating in an unincorporated part of the county. Any single project will require only two of these data points; which two depends upon where it is located, but filling in both sets is recommended. See Estimating Households in the Help system for detailed calculation steps. A far better approach would be to do a survey of employers in your area to obtain employees’ zip codes, from which you can derive more recent commuting patterns. If zip codes are too large to accurately place employees in a city or outside the county, then you may need street addresses and a GIS program to accurately map the locations and determine the percentages of employees living in each area.

**Descriptive Name**

Commuting Pattern Information - School (or other) Districts

**Analysis Level**

Required for all levels

**Definition**

If the facility locates in the district

(1) Percentage of new jobs in the district that are filled by people that live in the district areas.

This is the total number of residents in the district that work in the district divided by total jobs in the district.

If the facility locates outside the district

(2) Percentage of new jobs outside the district filled by people that commute from the district.

This is the total number of residents in the area that commute to jobs outside the district divided by total jobs in region where the facility will be locating. This percentage may vary significantly depending on where "outside" the district the facility will be locating.

**How its Used**

These are used to estimate how new households formed by facility employees are likely to be distributed geographically when the community being analyzed is a school district.

**How to Estimate it or Where to Get It**

The input screen has two commuting data points - one for projects locating in the district, and one data point for projects locating in "outside" the district. Any single project will require only one of these data points; which one depends upon where it is located. See Estimating Households in the Help system for detailed calculation steps. A far better approach would be to do a survey of employers in your area getting, for example, employees’ zip codes, from which you can derive more recent commuting patterns.

**Descriptive Name**

Discount Rate

**Analysis Level**

Required for all levels

**Definition**

The discount rate represents the opportunity cost of capital, that is, it is the interest lost by receiving funds in the future rather than in the present.

**How its Used**

The discount rate is used to convert future net benefits to current net benefits by reducing net benefits by the factor 1/(1 + DR)t, where DR is the discount rate and "t" is the number of years from the current year. Therefore, the higher the discount rate the lower the net present value of net benefits.

**How to Estimate it or Where to Get It**

The discount rate is used to calculate net present value; there is no universally agreed-upon method of deriving this variable but it can safely be bounded by the interest rate paid on revenue bonds (high-end) and the interest rate received for government deposits (low-end) when both have been reduced by the amount of current inflation.

**Descriptive Name**

DPI Percent of Total Income

**Analysis Level**

Required for all levels

**Definition**

Disposable personal income (DPI) divided by total personal income, times 100 to convert it to a percentage. Disposable personal income is what a household has to spend after taxes.

**How its Used**

Used to convert total income (total payroll for the facility) to disposable income prior to estimating retail sales volume for the sales tax calculation.

**How to Estimate it or Where to Get It**

A source for this data at the state level is the U.S. Statistical Abstract published by the U.S. Department of Commerce. There is a default value for this variable for every state, supplied with LOCI. Use the Default button to access the estimate for your state (the state is determined in the Community-Description screen).

**Descriptive Name**

Total Local Households

**Analysis Level**

Required for all levels

**Definition**

Total households in the jurisdiction.

**How its Used**

Used to estimate residential real and personal property taxes, revenue from fees, and government costs for new households generated by the facility and multiplier impacts. The annual figure for each item is divided by total households to get a per household estimator which is multiplied by new households in the jurisdiction to arrive at the appropriate value.

**How to Estimate it or Where to Get It**

The source for this data is the 1990 Census of Population. The 1990 values can be scaled to the current year using, for example, the growth in the number of improved residential parcels available from the tax assessors office.

**Descriptive Name**

Total Local Jobs

**Analysis Level**

Required for all levels

**Definition**

Total local employment by place of work (jobs) in the city/county.

**How its Used**

Used in estimating commercial and industrial sector utility revenues and costs from multiplier impacts. Also, used to calculate new employment from multiplier impacts.

**How to Estimate it or Where to Get It**

The source for this data would be a state Department of Labor for counties. City jobs data is harder to find. It can be estimated in the same manner as described in the "Commuting Pattern Information - Cities" above, using data from the most recent census.

**Descriptive Name**

Total Wages and Salaries

**Analysis Level**

Required for all levels

**Definition**

Total wages and salaries for all jobs in the jurisdiction.

**How its Used**

Used in estimating employment and household payments of personal and real property taxes resulting from economic growth following completion of the facility.

**How to Estimate it or Where to Get It**

The data source is the same as for total employment, i.e., from your state’s labor department. Ask for ES202 or CEW data on total wages and salaries generated by the jobs in your jurisdiction. County level data is available, but city level data may have to be calculated from the county number. In that case, use average wages and salaries per job in the county times your estimate of jobs for the city to get this value.

**Descriptive Name**

Households per Employee

**Analysis Level**

Required for all levels

**Definition**

Total households in the area divided by total employment. Ideally, this ratio is calculated from recent experience rather than an average for the whole area.

**How its Used**

The households per employee average is used to estimate the number of new households likely to be formed from the increase in employment represented by the facility, multiplier effects, and new households induced by visitor expenditures.

**How to Estimate it or Where to Get It**

Statewide estimates of households and employment should be readily available from a state’s statistical abstract. LOCI provides a figure for each state as a default value if no local estimate is available. Use the Default button to access the estimate for your state (the state is determined in the Community-Description screen).

**Descriptive Name**

Enrollment per Household

**Analysis Level**

Required for all levels

**Definition**

Total school enrollment divided by total households in the jurisdiction.

**How its Used**

This is used to estimate how many new pupils will be entering the school system from new households created from facility employees, multiplier effects, and tourism impacts. Ideally, it would reflect the characteristics of the employees moving into the community, rather than the community as a whole. A community-wide average may not reflect the average number of school age children per household found among the new employees. Households of retired persons will lower the value for the community and therefore, the community’s ratio will not reflect the ratio likely to be found among the new employees.

**How to Estimate it or Where to Get It**

A good source for this data is surveys of local employees. A less accurate measure would simply be the total school enrollment in the state divided by the number of households in the state.

**Descriptive Name**

Total Public School Enrollment

**Analysis Level**

Required for all levels

**Definition**

Total number of enrolled students in the jurisdictions school system.

**How its Used**

This is used to estimate total cost per student, which is applied to an estimated number of new students to calculate the expected increase in educational costs. This would apply only to the school system covering the jurisdiction under study.

**How to Estimate it or Where to Get It**

The local school board would be a good source for this data.